There is enough material in the headlines regarding Syria, Egypt, Israel and Maj. Nidal, to fill a small book…for each!
This is a most difficult area to be considering, the choices are ALL unpleasant, the repercussions awful and good answers are Zero. We already know the horrors Bashar Al-Assad has been raining down on his people, on the majority Sunni population. What began as a Sunni speaking out, joined by many Shia, was quickly turned into a factional war between Shia and Sunni and is now on the verge of becoming an Shia-Sunni existential civil war from which there is no going back. The situation created by Assad and now the “neighbors” is such that the Shia and the Sunni are each afraid that should the other win, they will be annihilated, so the battle is on.
We have an number of countries that are arrayed against Assad or, the Shia or, both. These countries include the USA, Arabia, Qatar and to lesser degree, Egypt, Turkey and Israel; an interesting alliance of distrust, all for their own, differing reasons, but since the enemy of my enemy is my friend, these countries are happy to dance with each other….for now.